Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0


Cloud Computing is a relatively new term to the industry. It is a computing technology that uses the Internet and central remote servers to store data and applications. In other words, it is a service software system which aimed to deliver service to people through web applications on independent platforms. It allows people to use software programs without software installation. At the same time, people can access their data at any computer with Internet access and collaborate files with others. It allows for more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth.


  • Scalability – can easily scale IT capabilities to meet demand
  • Accessibility – can remote accessibility to data and ability to collaborate across locations
  • Affordability – can reduce capital costs of upgrading the IT infrastructure
  • Energy Efficient – can reduce the physical server footprint and save energy
  • Collaboration – can share information and collaborate with others.


  • Security and Privacy – who owns the data and cloud service providers can they access your files and sell to others
  • Internet connections – does not work well with low-speed connections
  • Constant Internet – require a constant internet otherwrise no internet which means no data and no access
  • Data missing – there is chance that data can be completely losted by stored it in the cloud and without any physical backups

Cloud Computing and Organizations
As we all know, there are many benefits of cloud computing, however managing the transition and maximising the positive effects requires the buy-in. The foundation for cloud computing will rest on the organizational, technological and process will change on how to providing services. In other words, cloud computing will require the organizations to change their old traditional IT thinking.

In the conclusion, there are many benefits of cloud computing, however managing the transition and maximising the positive effects requires the buy-in. Therefore, the biggest challenge for the organizations is to adapt this new technology from many different areas and integrate into their current business model and develop new model to increase their business values. In other words, they need to adapt business changes from business model, procedures, skills, knowlege and technology.


What is Government 2.0?

What does the term Government 2.0 mean? Do the public really know to it and need to understand it? How can Web 2.0 technology and social media help to improve efficiencies within government and citizen participation? In the 21Web 2.0 initiatives are being used within the public sector, giving more currency to the term Government 2.0 (New World Encyclopedia, 2009).

Government 2.0 with the use of technology, both inside and outside government. The term “Government 2.0” leverages Web 2.0 and social networking technology. It is always associated with Web 2.0 and Social Media. In 2005, The term was first coined by is one of America’s best known authorities on government reform William D. Eggers and with co-author Stephen Goldsmith in Government 2.0: Using Technology to Improve Education, Cut Red Tape, Reduce Gridlock, and Enhance Democracy. According to New World Encyclopedia (2009), it is an attempt to integrate the social networking and interactive advantages of Web 2.0 approaches into the practice of government. It can provide more effective processes for service delivery for individuals and businesses. Integration of tools like wikis, development of government specific social networking sites, use of blogs, multimedia sharing, podcasts, RSS feeds and data mashups are all helping governments provide information to citizens in a manner that is most useful to them.

A simpler definition is that “Government 2.0 either describes a vision of a new form of governance , engaging with constituents is understood as a critical element of political legitimacy”. (A. Schellong and P. Girrger, 2010) In other words, Government 2.0 can have two meanings. It is the use of Information Technology (IT) to socialize and commoditize government services, processes and data (A. Maio, 2009). It is also the use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies (especially the collaborative technologies) to interact with citizens more directly and provide better government services at a city, state, national and international level.

A more intriguing definition, the term “Government 2.0″ was introduced by respected developers’ handbook publisher Tim O’Reilly, is “Government As a Platform” at both Gov 2.0 Expo and Gov 2.0 Summit Conferences in 2009 and Washington DC.

A video explains “What Government 2.0 is” by Tim O’Reilly

Video 1.0 – What Government 2.0 is

Characteristics of Government 2.0

  • It is citizen-driven.
  • It is employee-centric.
  • It keeps evolving.
  • It is transformational.
  • It requires a blend of planning and nurturing.
  • It needs Pattern-Based Strategy capabilities.
  • It calls for a new management style.

From Gartner – Government 2.0: A Gartner Definition by Andrea Di Maio.

Four Types of Interaction of Government 2.0

  • Government to citizen – providing services and information to citizens.
  • Citizen to government – citizens report on probelms that need government assistance.
  • Citizen to citizen – not every problem needs to be solved by government.
  • Government to government – we need better cooperation within government agencies.

From My Heart’s In Accra – Tim O’Reilly on Government 2.0 by Ethan Zuckerman.

Benefits of Government 2.0

  • To reduce cost of engagement through more productive tools
  • To provide a more efficient and effective communication way with cizitens
  • To help government better take advantage of social networking technologies
  • To use collaborative tool for easier knowledge sharing
  • To enhance information discovery through transparency and data mashups
  • To improve satisfaction between citizen and employee
  • To simplify knowledge creation and retention though usable Web 2.0/Enterprise 2.0 applications

Risks of Government 2.0

  • Privacy
  • Security
  • Bureaucracy
  • Regulation
  • Data Silos

From Government Blogs – Building On The Government 2.0 Platform by John Foley.

In conclusion, Government 2.0 with technology is enabled government to provide better government services and processes through social networking tools like Facebook and Twitter. The Government 2.0 platform is serving as an online communication platform for government to communicate and engage more efficient and effectively with citizens.


Web 2.0. 2009. New World Encyclopedia.

A. Schellong and P. Girrger. 2010. GOVERNMENT 2.0 IN BETA PHASE : An Analysis of eParticipation and Web 2.0 Applications of Germany’s 50 largest Cities and 16 Federal States.

A. Maio. 2009. Government 2.0: A Gartner Definition.

Enterprise Wiki Tools

The Internet is the most famous distribution system in the world. Wiki is becoming one of the most  popular social media tools for the organization of communication.

The following is a list of the popular open-source Wiki software for collaboration in the enterprise and community.

  • MediaWiki – is the world’s most popular web-based open-sourced software. Wiki platform, a software package is written in PHP programming language and requires either a PostgreSQL or MySQL database. It was developed in 2003 and used on all projects of the Wikimedia Foundation. It can be used both internally as intranet or externally as company public wiki on the Interent.
  • TWiki – is an open-source enterprise agility and Web 2.0 platform which is the most popular wiki used behind the corporate firewall. It is written in Perl programming language. It was founded by Peter Thoeny in 1998. It can be used for both internal and external networks of an organization.
  • xWiki – is a free open-source wiki and web application platform. It is an enterprise Wiki software package licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). It was originally developed by Ludovic Dubost and was first released in January 2003. All XWiki software is developed in Java programming language and uses a relational database management system such as MySQL, PostgreSQL and HSQLDB..
  • MindTouch Core – is an enterprise-grade collaboration, wiki and mashup platform. It is built on C# using .NET/Mono/PHP.
  • PmWiki – is a web-base software wiki platform and distributed under a General Public License. It is written by university professor and Perl 6 developer Patrick R. Michaud in the PHP programming language and uses  a relational database management system like MySQL or SQLite databases for data storage.


MediaWiki. 2010. Wikipedia.

TWiki. 2010. Wikipedia.

PmWiki. 2010. Wikipedia.

MindTouch Core. 2010. Geeknet.

Google Trends

In May 2006, Google labs launched its state-of-the-art analysis tool called Google Trends. Since it launched, it has fast become a popular keyword search program for the interest of Internet users across the world. Google Trends is a free public web facility of Google Inc., about Google Search, that shows how often a particular search-term is entered relative to the total search-volume across various regions of the world, and in various languages (Wikipedia, 2010). It allows people to search, to track and to monitor keywords, brand names, products keyword phrases and services. It also provides a way to visualize the popularity of searches over a period of time (see Video 1.0). As well, it leverages the Google News service to highlight those trends over time, with news activities acting as punctuators on a graphical chart (Smallman, 2008).

A video explains “What Google Trends is”

Video 1.0 – Google Trends

The Google Trends home page has been enhanced to include these Hot Trends (Hot topics and  Hot Searches). It will show the top ten hot trends for the day, for the USA (United States of America).

Search the phrases “Web 2.0” and “Social Media”

It is interesting to see the graph which shows the popularity between those two key phrases “Web 2.0” and “Social Media”.

Google Trends for Web 2.0 and Social Media

Figure 1.0 – Google Trends for Web 2.0 and Social Media

The above graph which clearly shows that “in 2009, Social media (red) is starting to overtake Web 2.0 (blue) worldwide”. Social Media will become more popular. It will combine with the Semantic Web to form Web 3.0 which is enabling a new generation of richer interface with more shareable and  mashable content.


Google Trends. 2010. Wikipedia.

W. Smallman. 2008. Google Trends to monitor key topics in the news. Social Media Marketing.


As technology has developed, so too has the web and it is expanding constantly. Currently, we are in the era of Web 2.0 and Social Media is harnessing collaboration. Social Media is the revolutionary transformation of media, going from a top-down broadcast model to one that allows the former audience to communicate with one another and take part in the content creation (Khan,2010).

Social media is fast becoming a new type of media for online social interaction. It is also a new communication medium platform which encourages individuals to become co-producers, co-creators and co-developers. In other words, social media allows people to shift flexibly between the role of audience and author. The term “Social Media” started with Rohit Bhargava of Ogilvy Public Relations in 2006. It is a collective term for online interactive “technologies and practices that people use to share opinions, insights, experiences, and perspectives” (Wikipedia, 2010). Currently, the social media platforms are combinations of online Web-based collaborative tools which allow individuals and organizations to instantly collaborate, to share information and to discuss ideas. As well, thwy allows people to form a highly accessible online collaborative community. In 2010, Kaplan and Haenlein defined six different social media types in their Business Horizons article called Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media and Social Netwroks is one of them.

In 1954, the term “Social Network” was first coined by J. A. Barnes in the book Human Relations – Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish. According to Wikipedia (2010), a social networks is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called “nodes,” which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. In other words, they allow people to build their online personal profile and connect with their friends to form their own social network. As well, they help to share content with others and to allow people to communicate more interactively. The typical examples of social networks are Facebook and MySpace (see Figure 1.0).

Social Networks

Figure 1.0 – Examples of Social Networks

Today, more and more companies are using social netowrks to communicate with their employees, consumers and business partners. Companies like Coca-Cola, Southwest Airlines, Pepsi, Intel, Dell and Ford are changing their corporate culture to support Social Media. For example, Intel is using Twitter to connect with their consumers – Michael Brito (a former social media manager at Intel) on Vimeo. This week i am going to look  into an organization that uses social networks. One of the best examples for an organization is Nike.

Nike Logo

Figure 2.0 – Nike

Nike (see Figure 2.0) is an American company and was founded as Ble Ribbon Sports in January 1964 by Bill Bowerman and Philip Knight. With more than 30,000 Nike employees across six continents in the world, Nike is the world’s leading sportswear and equipment supplier (Nike, 2010). Nike is using social networks to reach out to consumers and young audiences, as well as, to allow them to share their own sports story with others. In July 2006, Nike and Apple partnered up together to launch a new innovative Nike+iPod product, Nike Plus (see Video 1.0). It is also known as Nike + iPod which is a technology providing motivation to runners in 180 countries around the world (Nike, 2010). It also allows them to track their personal workout data, upload their running/walking information and connects ruuners around the world at a website, Nike+ (see Figure 3.0) where it’s aggregated with all the other data uploaded by all the other runners and walkers (Hames, 2008). Most importantly, Nike+ website is a virtual gathering place for the runners. They have collectively logged 459 million kilomiles. In other words, Nike creates an online community with social network applications (Nike Plus | Facebook, Nike Plus | Twitter) for the consumers to communicate, so they can be engaged and can be part of a community whether it is a digital community or virtual community or even if it is a physical community.

Nike Plus Statistics

  • Nike has more than 2 million Nike+ community members.
  • Nike+ community members have logged more than 459 million kilomiles. (September, 2010)
  • Since launch in July 2006 over 900,000 challenges (908,935 and counting) have been created, more than 1.7 million goals (1,732,653 and counting) have been created, and more than 140,000 training programs (141,819 and counting) have been launched on www.nikeplus.com (Nikebiz, 2010).

A video clip explains “what Nike+ is”

Video 1.0 – Nike+ Motivation

Figure 3.0 – Nike+ website

Benefits of Social Networking Site (Social Network)

Nike is one of the major organizations that truly enhance their bottom line through social networking (MarketingHackz.com, 2009). There are some key benefits for Nike to launch a strong corporate social networking site.

  • User Focus – Make it useful, fun, and informative for your customers and potential customers.  People do not want to participate in networks that simply advertise new products or offer specials.
  • Niche Building – Having a social network is nice, but creating one that is THE place to go for participants passionate in a particular niche is extremely important when it comes to making a network stand out.
  • Product Tie-Ins – In the end, a social network should make a splash on the bottom line.  People have shown that they are willing to spend money on a product if the benefits work both ways: the product must enhance the use of the network and the network must enhance the use of the product.
  • Event Tie-Ins – The Internet is loaded with ways to learn about and register for events.  By using the social network to improve the efficiency and communication of events, especially ones that are locally focused but involve multiple venues, the overall value of the network will be enhanced.
  • Set Community Goals – Nike+ is getting close to logging 100 Million Miles amongst their users.

From MarketingHackz.com.

In conclusion, Nike has successfully launched Nike+product with social networks. Nike+ uses digital technology (embedded a chip in a shoe) to enhance consumers performance and make sure that there is both a community angle of it and all the social attraction (MarketingHackz.com, 2009). More companies will use social networks like Facebook and Twitter as tools to provide ways for the organization to build brand loyalty, gather information and even create competitive advantages.


Nike+ Shows Why Corporate Social Networking Is Important. 2009. MarketingHackz.com.

 Nike Partners with Seminal Hip Hop Group De La Soul to Release ARE YOU IN?: Nike+ Original Run Available Exclusively at the Nike iTunes Store Beginning April 28th. 2010. 2010. NikeBiz.

Social Media. 2010. Wikipedia.

Social Network. 2010. Wikipedia.

Kaplan, Andreas M. and Haenlein Michael. 2010. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.

N. Khan. 2010. Internet Marketing.

Nike. 2010

What is media convergence?

Media convergence (see figure 1.0) is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the relationship between existing technologies, industries, markets, genres and audiences. Convergence refers to a process, but not an endpoint (Jenkins, 2004).

A video clip explains “what media convergence is”

Figure 1.0 – Media Convergence

Shift in media ownership patterns is driving media convergence. New media conglomerates (e.g. Viacom) have interests in films, television, popular music, computer games, websites, toys, amusement park rides, books, newspapers, magazines and comics.

With this media convergence will come a new trend in consumption. The people will react. For example, a teenager may scan the web, listen to MP3 files, chat with friends, wordprocess a paper and respond with an email all at once. He will want this kind of service to continue.

Media convergence creates people’s needs which are different to previously. It pushes people to another era. New needs and wants. The development will be uneven as it is still developing now. It will vary from country to country. Rich countries will be ahead.

Business wants media convergence, because it should mean profit to the company. However, the C.E.O.s need to think how far he or she wants to go in taking a risk. He or she also needs to get other company members to believe in his idea and co-operate.

A video shows “how the media convergence work with business”

Figure 2.0 – Convergence Media Madness

Hiredgoon. 2006. Convergence Media Madness.

H. Jenkins. 2004.  ‘The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence’ International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 7 (1), 33-43.

Business and Corporate Wiki

There is rapid development of technology, use of social media tools and content-sharing sites. Today, more and more organizations are now starting to use wikis as a knowledge sharing tool or as a content management tool. In other words, Wikis are becoming one of the most  popular social media tools for organizational communication.

The term “Wiki” is a Hawaiian word for “quick” or “fast”. On the World Wide Web it is used both to mean a web site or collection of web pages that are communally written, and the underlying technology that facilitates the web site’s creation (Andersen, 2005). In other words, Wiki is an open and collaborative platform for information creation and knowledge sharing. The term was coined by Ward Cunningham in 1995, the Amercian computer programmer and software developer of the new website technology WikiWikiWeb. A wiki is the classic Enterprise 2.0 technology for a core of strongly tied knowledge workers who are collaborating on a deliverable (McAfee, 2007). Wikis have been used to create group spaces, to generate documents, to build user-generated content-based community, to share contents, to communicate to the public, to debate their contents and structure with simple user friendly interface.

A video clip explains “what wiki is”

Figure 1.0 – What wiki is

Types of Wikis

Below is a list of three major different types of Wikis which have been used in different context and purposes.

  • Personal Wikis/Desktop Wiki –  It is primarily for personal use. It allows people to store their information (eg. notes, to-do lists, projects, links) and to organize information on their desktops and mobile devices. TiddlyWiki is a powerful personal wiki platform which can be used as personal database for notes and other information.
  • Team Wiki/Multi-Users Wiki –  It is for a group of people users. It allows people in the same team or work group to store and archive structured information and share ideas, so everyone in the team can read and contribute. This type of wiki has been used for many varied purposes, including project management, knowledge management, technology support and communities of practice.
  • Corporate Wiki/Enterprise Wiki/Organizational Wiki – It is a wiki used in a corporate (or organisational) context, especially to enhance internal knowledge sharing (Wikipedia, 2010). It is an amazing place for the organization to store both internal and external information with easy access. It is also a collaboration place for employees to participate and to share ideas with others.

Features of Wikis

  • Collaboration – Everyone is requesting and receiving information. Everyone can be both a Content Producer(Creator) and a Content Consumer.
  • Communication – They are more oriented to many-to-many forms of communication about shared content (like resources and information) and have instant communication over the Internet.
  • Information – Keep people informed on lastest information.
  • Productivity and Efficiency – To increase employees’ productivity by providing right tools.
  • Low Cost – cost less to implement wiki than centralized Internat.

Wiki Services/Softwares

  • MediaWiki It is an Open Source (free) web-based software wiki package written in PHP, originally for use on Wikipedia, as well as other Wikis.
  • WikidPad It is a free personal (single-user) Python-based wiki-like note editor which can be installed on a portable (like USB) drive.
  • TWiki It is an Open Source Perl-based structured wiki application.

Case Study of Sony Ericsson

There are many technology organizations already using wikis as part of their developer networks, such as Intel, Motorola, IBM, Sun, Oracel and SAP. Other companies like Red Ant and Pixar use wikis as their collaboration tool for clients to communicate and manage project.

The Sony Ericsson Developer World

Figure 2.0 – Sony Ericsson’s wiki community

In 2006, Sony Ericsson decided to launch a new wiki community to support the Sony Ericsson mobile developers. In the Sony Ericsson developer world Wiki, people can easily get information on how the latest technologies (Jave ME, Symbian/UIQ3, Android) are used in any Sony Ericsson mobile phone and aslo they can share ideas and information with others. As well, they can find tools and support to develop great mobile applications and content.

Benefits of Using Wiki for Sony Ericsson

Sony Ericsson integrates the wiki as one of  the imporatant mobile application developement tools in its organization IT collaboration architecture to help and support its mobile communication users.

  • can access up-to-date content information.
  • can provide efficiency tools to its users to develop applications.
  • can provide collaborative knowledge across people and platforms.
  • can provide RSS Feeds to individual topic and pages.
  • can encourage people to leave comments and discuss article topics.
  • can save resources – view the newest phone user guide without  printing them.


E. Andersen. 2005. Using Wikis in a Corporate Context.

Enterprise Wiki. 2010. Wikipedia.

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