Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0

With the rapid development of technology and social media, traditional mainstream media platforms are greatly challenged by the fast-changing environment. Today, blogs have become one of the most popular and cost-effective Web 2.0 tools on the Internet. It is a new method of communication between the individuals with new technologies (see Figure 1.0). According to a survey, more than 50 % of the companies worldwide blog and about 12% of the Fortune 500 companies are a part of the blogging world (shine.com, 2009). In other words, more and more companies are starting to host an up-to-date blog on their company website to allow their company to move from opacity to transparency and to increase brand awareness.

A video clip explains “what blog is”

Figure 1.0 – What blog is

As my previous post “Blog and Weblog“, stated we all know that there are many different types of blogs. They can be classified into four main types. Those blogs are personal blogs, corporate blogs, professional blogs and micro blogs. This week i am to find more about corporate blogs and  the risks and the benefits of corporate blogging.

Corporate Blog

Figure 2.0 – Corporate Blog

The corporate blogs are company blogs used for marketing communication purposes (see Figure 2.0). The advantage of blogs is that posts and comments are easy to reach and follow due to centralized hosting and generally structured conversation threads (Wikipedia, 2010). In the realm of business, those corporate blogs can be used to inform new and current existing customers of company activities. They can be categorized into internal and external. They act as an internal corporate Intranet to form a sense of community and to communicate with the employees instantly. The external corporate blogs are open to the public and can be maintained by companies. As well, these types of blogs can be used as a Public Relations (PR) tool to manage communication between an organization and its public, including staff, customers, suppliers, partners and the media.

Blogging Benefits

There is a list of benefits of implementing social media and using corporate blogs as a two-way interaction tool in the organization.

  • Improvement – To use blogs to improve marketing, branding and Public Relations.
  • Feedback – To use as a feedback tool internally and externally.
  • Relationship – To build the relationship between the company and its employers, customers and investors.
  • Connection – To connect employees and customers across the world to form a community.
  • Reputation Management –  To provide companies with a way to prevent problems before they happen or help improve situations when it is too late for prevention (Snell, 2009).
  • Collaboration – To serve as an ideal simple tool for internal collaboration to keep up-to-date information and version consistency.
  • Interaction – To allow the company to easier communicate and interact with its readers who can share ideas, thoughts and information with others.
  • Engagement – To encourage the customers to comment on posts. So that, the company can easily engage with them.
  • Communication (Internal) – It can be acted as a upon two-way communication channel between the internal employees. So, they have most up-to-date information about the company such as company policies or changes.
  • Communication (External) – It is open to the public and often used to announce company new products and services to the public and anything else that a company would like to share with the world.

Blogging Risks

Although corporate blogs can provide all kinds of benefits and opportunities for companies, there are also a number of  risks that companies can experience.

  • Negative Comments – They can be offset somewhat with a consistent and clear comment and moderation policy (overtonecomm, 2007). The organization can use the blog to address complaints to provide positive feedback to the public.
  • Maintenance – The companies need to spend time on maintaining their blogs.
  • Legal Liabilities – Companies need to be careful with any legal materials and also need to consider aspects like consumer protection laws (Consumer Rights) and intellectual property laws.

For more information on Legal risks of corporate blogging, please read Legal risks of corporate blogging and user-generated content.

Example of Corporate Blogs

Dell – This is one of the largest technological corporations in the world, employing more than 96,000 people worldwide (Wikipedia, 2010). In June 2006, the company launched its own corporate blog, called Direct2Dell. Dell uses its blog as a tool to allow people (including customers, employees and investors) to share comments, ideas and insights.

37signals – This is a web application development company which develops simple web-based software application products with individuals and small businesses. The company has a corporate blog called “Signal vs. Noise” which is self-described as featuring “entrepreneurship, design, experience, simplicity, constraints, pop culture, our products, products we like, and more (Wikipedia, 2010).” It’s corporate blog reaches 100,000 readers (RSS subscribers) a day (Newsweek, 2010). The company also uses its product blog to do product promotions.

In conclusion, companies are learning new ways to use social media to improve service and to incorporate new techniques and technologies into existing online communication platforms. Those social media tools fundamentally change the relationship between a company and its staff, customers and investors across the world.

References:

5 advantages of corporate blogging. 2009. Shine.com.

Dell. 2010. Wikipedia.

S. Snell. 2009. Corporate Blog Design: Trends And Examples.

37signals. 2010. Wikipedia.

Corporate Blog. 2010. Wikipedia.

The New Rules of Business From 37signals. 2010. Newsweek.

Top 10 Risks for Corporate Blogs. 2007. OvertoneComm.

Video Blogging

Basically, video blogging is combination of blog and video. It is blog which primarily features video instead of text. It is also known as Vlogging and vodcasting. In recent years, it has become more practical for more people to use. This is due to the development of technology. 

Now, blogging is getting easier to use because people do not really need to have technical skills such as HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) or even to understand them. They can still create their own video blogging. However, we can not expect everyone to do blogging – only those who like the self-publishing process.

As technology has developed, the Internet users have had high speed broadband to access the Internet and video blogging software has become much easier to use. Therefore, now there are many online websites which provide this service “online video” to their users. Some of these are Youtube, MySpace Video, Yahoo! Video Search, MSN Video Search and Google Video Search. People are not just relying on the traditional media.

Video blogging has a big demand to grow and a huge potential to develop. “According to Hitwise, the leading online competitive intelligence service, the market share of Internet visits to the 10 leading online video sites has increased by 164 percent in the past three months (week ending May 20, 2006 versus week ending February 25, 2006).” The video search market share of the top 10 Internet video sites is as follows:

  1. YouTube 42.94%
  2. MySpace Videos 24.22%
  3. Yahoo! Video Search 9.58%
  4. MSN Video Search 9.21%
  5. Google Video Search 6.48%
  6. AOL Video 4.28%
  7. iFilm 2.28%
  8. Grouper 0.69%
  9. Dailymotion.com 0.22%
  10. vSocial.com 0.09%

Youtube is leader of the Internet video site. It is both a video viewing  site and also a social networking site. It allows its users to create their own peofiles, upload their media content (videos) and post comments on others’ works. However, can Youtube keep its on the top?

Reference:

Hitwise. (2007) Youtube dominating video search category.

Social Media Examples

There is a list of examples of ogranizational uses of social media to interact and to communicate with consumers, employees and business partners. Those organizations are adopting Social Media and implementing Enterprise 2.0 to build an interactive collaboration environment which allows people to collaborate with others and get valuable information.

Examples – Company adopting Social Media

Examples – Company creates customer product brand

Examples – Companies have a Social Media Policy

Resources – Social Media Case Study Examples

Technology is in a state of constant change. The world of communication has changed, with the rise of social media which changed the way individuals and companies communicate. In 2010, social media has spread further in the workplace, taking collaboration to a new level. The term “Social Media” was first coined in 2007 by Danah M. Boyd and Nicole B. Ellison‘s paper, Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship, published in December 2006. Social Media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content (UGC) (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p.61). In other words, social media is the media of online communication and interaction and content is generated and exchanged by online users.

A video clip explains “what social media is”

Characteristics of Social Media

Social media is a new way of connecting and interacting with people in various media forms, including videos, images and texts. It allows everyone to be a content co-producer and to publish or access information anywhere around the world. There are five main characteristics of Social Media.

Characteristics of Social Media

  1. Participation – to encourage contributions and feedback on the online platforms such as social networks, wikis and blogs.
  2. Openness – to provide free services and encourage people to provide comments and share information.
  3. Conversation – an interactive communication or a two-way conversation.
  4. Community – to allow people to form communities to share their common interests.
  5. Connectedness –  to use hypertext links to connect resources and people together.

Types of Social Media

In 2010, Kaplan and Haenlein defined six different social media types in their Business Horizons article called Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media.

Social Media

  1. Collaborative Projects – to allow people to be the content co-producer, to add content or edit the information. The best collaborative project is Wikipedia
  2. Blogs – to able people to leave comments and share information through blogging services like WordPress, Blogger and TypePad.
  3. Microblogs – to allow people to send and receive short instant messages (less than 140 characters) via mobile phones. Twitter is one of examples that is using micro-blogging as a service platform. 
  4. Content Communities – to share particular kinds of content. The most popular content communities are Flickr (images/photos), del.icio.us (bookmarked links) and YouTube (videos).
  5. Social Networks – to allow people to build their online personal profile and connect with their friends to form their own social network. As well, to share content with others and to allow them to communicate more interactively. The typical examples of social networks are Facebook and MySpace.
  6. Virtual Game Worlds – are virtual game communities and accessible on the Internet. They are enable their users to interact with one another through avatars. The best-known Virtual Game Worlds is Second Life (SL).

Internet Usage Statistics

The Internet has become the fastest growing medium in the world. According to website, Internet World Stats, there is an increase of 444.8% of Internet users worldwide over the last ten years. In 2000, there were only 361 Million (360,985,492 to be exact) Internet users worldwide, but the latest figure shows that the Internet users are just reaching under 2 Billion (1,966,514,816 to be exact on June 31, 2010).

Social Media Statistics

In 2010, social media is the number one activity on the Web and also is becoming a major platform for online interactive communication. There are some facts and figures on the most popular social media websites.

  • Wikipedia – over 16 million articles and over 3.3 million in English (Wikipedia, 2010).
  • Blogs – more than 110 million blogs being tracked by Technorati, a specialist blog search engine, up from 63 million at the beginning of the year (Mayfield, 2008).
  • Twitter – 75 million Twitters users (Mark Evans, 2010).
  • YouTube – 100 Million visitors per month and 5 Billion video streams every month (Clean Cut Media, 2009).
  • Facebook – over 500 million active users and 50% of its active users log on to Facebook in any given day. As well, each user spends over 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook (Facebook, 2010).

Social Media Risks in Organization

According to the research, nearly 50% of end-users ignore company policy on social media access and 27 % said they knowingly alter settings on their corporate devices to access restricted applications (Visage Mobile, 2010). That means, a company internal system is not secure and any private company information can be easily published by workers (staff) through many third-party applications (such as Facebook and Twitter) by a wall post or a status update.

There is a list of various legal risks of social media for companies.

  • Loss of confidential information
  • Trademark infringement and loss of brand reputation (reputation risk)
  • Copyright infringement
  • Discrimination
  • Misleading and deceptive conduct
  • Passing off
  • Organisational reputation risk
  • Breach of continuous disclosure obligations for public companies
  • Defamation
  • Privacy
  • Vicarious liability
  • Negligent misstatement
  • Occupation and industry specific risks as they are embodied in organisational specific legislation and practice.

For more information on Social Media Law go to the Rostron Carlyle’s website.

How to avoid Social Legal Risks in Organization

Today, there are a lot of companies which have decided to adopte the concept of Enterprise 2.0 and incorporate social media technologies and techniques in their business. However, there are some social legal concerns that should be considered more carefully. A Social Media Policy (SMP) should also be considered. Each company should develop its own SMP. Currently, more than 80% of companies have implemented social media to provide better interactive, collaborative communication for their customers, employees and business partners in America. But only 33% of large companies (like IBM and Intel) have a SMP.

In conclusion, individuals and companies all need to understand any social legal risks within the social media, especially in relation to personal information.

References:

Kaplan, Andreas M. and Haenlein Michael. 2010. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.

Visage Mobile. 2010. Mobility Management News and Blogs. Learn what we’re thinking about mobility management and where we think it’s going.

Wikipedia. 2010. Wikipedia.

J. Moriber. 2010. Social Media: Risk or Reward?.

Statistics Facebook. 2010. Facebook.

A. Mayfield. 2010. 75M Twitter Users But Growth Slowing.

Clean Cut Media. 2009. Youtube Statistics – The Ultimate Time Suck.

Today, with the technology development, the Web has changed the economics of software development and the Internet has also changed the way of the software developers with regard to how they look at the traditional software development and delivery process. With the evolution of the Web, Enterprise social software and Web technology have evolved into the next new Internet era, coined as Enterprise 2.0. The phrase “Enterprise  2.0″ was first coined by Harvard Business School Associate Professor Andrew McAfee in the spring 2006. Enterprise 2.0 is about a technical and cultural shift within the organization towards far greater degrees of user-driven content and content sharing (MIKE 2.0, 2010). In other words, Enterprise 2.0 is about collaboration and connectivity.

Key Benefits of Implementing Enterprise 2.0

Ross Dawson has defined four key benefits of implementing Enterprise 2.0 to organizations in his latest book called ” Implementing Enterprise 2.0″.

  • Productivity and Efficiency
  • Staff Engagement
  • Knowledge
  • Reputation

For full details on the report and all the sample chapters go to the Implementing Enterprise 2.0 website.

Why does an organization need to implement Enterprise 2.0?

Over the past decade, most organizations are used some common communication tools such as emails, websites and documents (printed static contents) to communicate and collaborate with their customers and employees. Today, they are also using Web 2.0 applications (examples wikis and blogs) and widgets (examples mashups) to help them to build an interactive collaborative environment, to increase productivity, to share knowledge and to enhance customer experience. 

This week, i am going to look  into an organization that has incorporated Enterprise 2.0 principles and social computing concepts associated with an innovative use of technology in its organization. One of the best examples for an organization is Vistaprint (see Figure 1.0).

Vistaprint Logo Figure 1.0 – Vistaprint

Who is Vistaprint?

Vistaprint is a large online supplier of printed and promotional materials. In North America, it is one of the fastest growing printing companies. It has served annually more than 9 million customers worldwide. It currently employs approximately 2,200 people, operates 22 localized websites globally and ships to more than 120 countries around the world  (Vistaprint 2010). It offers a broad range of services to small businesses and consumers from high-quality printed marketing materials to marketing services. It also provides online services and solutions such as email marketing, websites and postcard marketing.

How does Vistaprint implement Enterprise 2.0?

Idea sharing has always been very important at Vistaprint (Morgan, 2010). Therefore, Vistaprint adopted the concept of the Enterprise 2.0 and launched an internal enterprise wiki (powered by MediaWiki – see figure 2.0) and an ideation platform (powered by Intuit).

This video clip shows what MediaWiki is, what it does and what it can do for you.

Figure 2.0 – MediaWiki

  • Internal Enterprise Wiki – In mid 2006, Vistaprint decided to implement an internal enterprise wiki called “VistaWiki” for knowledge sharing (see Figure 3.0). Daniel Barrett has implemented this KM system (knowledge management system) into the social computing world for Vistaprint. The benefits of using VistaWiki within the organization are to increase efficiency and productivity and to give  knowledge to workers who can use collaborative software to share information.

VistaWiki

Figure 3.0 – VistaWiki

  • Ideation Platform – In March 2009, Vistaprint used the Intuit Brainstorm platform which was to speed up the product development process by unleashing creativity and empower employees with useful tools to move their ideas forward. (Zenkin, 2010) The platform was called “The Funnel” and is used to share ideas with staff across the organization, including CEO (Chief Executive Officer). Therefore, the funnel is a collaborative medium which is used to generate new ideas to deploy for customers (Morgan, 2010).

The benefits of implementing Enterprise 2.0 in Vistaprint

There are some key benefits that Vistaprint decided to implement an Enterprise 2.0 strategy into its organization.

  • Content Information Access – Ideation Platform helps to create better internal communication with easier access to content. The system users can also access from anywhere in the world.
  • Knowledge Sharing – VistaWiki users have created over 20,000 articles altogether. 
  • Instant Message Notification – VistaWiki users can see live data, such as sales figures, RSS 2.0 feeds directly from other enterprise systems (Portals and KM, 2009).
  • Simplicity and Cost Effective – VistaPrint employees found using the wiki format valuable for many reasons including: ease of use (based on open-source code), ability to track “live” documents and the simplicity of the design layout (Portals and KM, 2009).

References:

Enterprise 2.0 Solution Offering. MIKE 2.0. 2010.

Another Enterprise 2.0 Knowledge Sharing Success Story – VistaWiki. Portals and KM. 2009.

About Vistaprint. Vistaprint. 2010.

D. Zenkin. 2010. Intranet vs Enterprise 2.0 vs Social Software: an obvious case of terminological controversy.

J. Lennon. 2009. Implementing Enterprise 2.0.

J. Morgan. 2010. Implementing Enterprise 2.0 at Vistaprint Part One : Business Drivers.

What is Enterprise 2.0? How are organizations using Enterprise 2.0 principles in a significant way? Why organizations are using Web 2.0 technologies to improve collaboration across the enterprise. 

Enterprise 2.0 Definition

The term “Enterprise 2.0” is the next generation of enterprise content management (ECM) to knowledge workers using network software within an organization or business. It was credited with was being coined by Harvard Business School Associate Professor Andrew McAfee in the spring 2006 issue of the Sloan Management Review (SMR) article – Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration. In his blog, “The Business Impact of IT” (2006), McAfee defines Enterprise 2.o as the use of emergent social software platforms within companies, or between companies and their partners or customers. In other words, Enterprise 2.0 uses Web 2.0 technologies in the organization to create a competitive business advantage. It builds the network to help to connect like-minded people together, including employees, business partners/suppliers and customers. As well, it helps to share the internal and external information easily.

This interview video clip shows how Andrew McAfee identifies “What is Web 2.0/Enterprise 2.0?” and explains the keys principles of Enterprise 2.0.

Enterprise 2.0 Characterics “SLATES”

In 2006, Andrew McAfee introduced his “SLATES” mnemonic to indicate the six key components of Enterprise 2.0 technologies. As well, this acronym “SLATES” forms the basic framework of Enterprise 2.0.

  • Search – search technologies
  • Links – to link information together for easy access such as hyper linking and Mashup technologies
  • Authorship – to able everyone to contribute such as Wiki and blogs
  • Tags – to categorize content such as social bookmaking
  • Extensions – to allow users to extend their applications and to make intelligent system recommendations.
  • Signals – to inform or alert users of the updates via feeds technologies or email alerts.

According to Dion Hinchcliffe’s article “Web 2.0 definition updated and Enterprise 2.0 emerges” (2006), SLATES describes the combined use of effective enterprise search and discovery, using links to connect information together into a meaningful information ecosystem using the model of the Web, providing low-barrier social tools for public authorship of enterprise content, tags to let users create emergent organizational structure, extensions to spontaneously provide intelligent content suggestions similar to Amazon’s recommendation system, and signals to let users know when enterprise information they care about has been published or updated, such as when a corporate RSS feed of interest changes (ZDNET, 2010).

Enterprise 2.0 Technologies

There are some common Web 2.0 tools and technologies that always relate to Enterprise 2.0 in business. On the Internet are wikis (examples QEDWiki or MediaWiki), blogs (examples, Blogger or WordPress), social networking (facebook or LinkedIn),  micro-blogging platforms (examples, Twitter or Yammer), social bookmarking sites (examples, Delicious or Scuttle), mash-ups and gadgets.

Enterprise 2.0 Study Case

This week i am going to look  into a company that has incorporated Enterprise 2.0 into its organization. One of the best examples for a company like this is Oracle Corporation (see Figure 1.0).

Figure 1.0 – Oracle Corporate

The Oracle Corporation is the world’s second largest independent software company that specializes in developing and marketing enterprise software products – particularly database management systems (DBMs). According to Thomas Kurian, Oracle’s senior vice president (VP) of server technologies development, “The company believes Enterprise 2.0 technologies can transform the way companies share information and work together. (InformationWeek, 2007)” In other words, Oracle uses Enterprise 2.0’s principles such as “SLATES” to help its organization to create an interactive and collaborative business environment, products and services. 

Oracle combines the use of tools for search information more efficiently (see Figure 2.0), uses links to connect all information together to create a useful information ecosystem of content (see Figure 2.0); allows for the content information authoring and content categorization by tagging (see Figure 2.0). As well, it allows users to know when the content is updated via Feeds like RSS and alerts (see Figure 3.0).

 Figure 2.0 – Oracle Blog Home using Enterprise 2.0 Characterics “SLATES”

 

Figure 3.0 – Oracle Blog Home using Enterprise 2.0 Characterics “SLATES”

Enterprise 2.0 Business Model

Today, Enterprise 2.0 technology is challenging traditional business designs and changing the existing old economic business models with new Web and the rise of mass collaboration. Wikinomics is one of new economic models of the twenty-first-century digital economy. It is a rephrasing of Coase’s Law which was attributed to Ronald Coase in 1937. The term “Wikinomics” is popularized by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams‘s book, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, published in December 2006. It describes the effects of extensive collaboration and user-participation in the marketplace and the corporate world (Whatis.com, 2008). In other words, it is a new way bring people together on the Internet and leverages the power of collaboration.

Authors Tapscott and Williams claim the following four key drivers are the central concepts of wikinomics in the enterprise.

  • Openness – to create a collaborative environment, to share information with others and to maximize the transfer of ideas.
  • Peering – to encourage everyone to be the co-producer to contribute.
  • Sharing – to share any innovation and improvement, as well as, the development of ideas, creations and strategies.
  • Acting Globally – to actively interact with community and attract people all over the world.

This interview video clip shows how Don Tapscott how Wikinomics impact on business and startup opportunities.

Enterprise 2.0 Business Model Case Study

This week i am going to look  into one of the best examples of Wikinomics in Motley Fool (see Figure 4.0).

Figure 4.0 – Motley Fool

Motley Fool is an American private popular financial portal company which is dedicated to building the world’s greatest investment community. The company was founded in September 1995 by David Gardner, Tom Gardner and Erik Rydholm. It provides multimedia financial services, including financial solutions for investors through various stock, investing and personal finance products (Wikipedia, 2010). Motley Fool launched its website to help people to make better investment and financial decisions and to offer articles on stocks and investing. It uses its website as a communication platform to form an interactive and collaborative environment with the Enterprise 2.0 business model and the principles of wikinomics. In the spring of 2006, the Motley Fool launched its online community called – CAPS. This community (see Figure 5.0) allows everyone to become the co-producers of the community and to share their free knowledge and information with others. Sharing is the key to the community and it also enhances their core value proposition.

 Figure 5.0 – Motley Fool CAPS Community

In conclusion, technology and the Internet are making the world a smaller and more connected place (Terry Semel, 2009). However, technology is also changing the way people interact with others by social media and how companies incorporate Enterprise 2.0 technology into organizational structure to help create a competitive advantage. People are content co-producers in the community and more proactively participants in community activities. Information can be shared with like-minded people.

References:

Wikinomics. 2010. Whatis.com.

Motley Fool. 2010. Wikipedia.

Enterprise Web 2.0. D. Hinchcliffe (2006) ZDNet.com.

A. McAfee (2006) The Business Impact of IT.

Orace Pushes Enterprise 2.0. J. Hoover. (2007) InformationWeek.

Introduction
From my point of view, the weblog is a new, open and flexible way of communication. It has recently become the most popular medium for communication between people. It provides an online place for people to share their interests and knowledge. In other words, the weblog can be a universal communication medium and a social virtual community (weblog community).

The weblog can be used as a vehicle on the World Wide Web (WWW). It encourages dialogues between the Internet users or the weblog users (bloggers) and connects people from all over the world. It turns the Internet into a global village. It is a virtual world similar to the real world or you could call it a “virtual reality world”.

D.I.Y. on the Internet

People have become actively D.I.Y. producers. Now, they are seeking information from the weblog, instead of from the traditional mainstream mass media such as newspapers, magazines and journals.

Weblogs can be updated regularly. Because of this, news can not be hidden any more. The weblog is maintained by interested individuals or groups. It shows the collaborative side of the Internet.

Because of the development of the Internet and software, the weblog has become easier to use. weblogs are generally published and produced by all kinds of people (This could be a single person or a group of people) and this is on any kind of topic such as political issues, games or sports.

Weblogs as a communication medium

Cited from Flew (2005), New Media, “The Internet has thus become the fastest-growing medium ever record. It is estimated that as of September 2002 there were 605.6 million Internet users worldwide, having grown from 30.6 million users in 1995, or by almost 2000% over a seven-year period (NUA 2004)”.
The Internet has grown very quickly. It also has many viewers. This means that many people will read my messages. They will be located all over the world.

Weblogs create a great medium. They are extensive/ quick/ cheap/ high tech/ and modern.

Obviously, because the Internet, the web and weblogs have become so popular so quickly, they surely will remain as a very popular means of communication. With the future development of Virtual Communities, this popularity will continue into the future.

References:
T. Flew (2005) ‘The Internet’, in New Media. An Introduction (2nd Ed). Melbourne: OUP.

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