Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0

Posts tagged ‘Tim O’Reilly’

What is Government 2.0?

What does the term Government 2.0 mean? Do the public really know to it and need to understand it? How can Web 2.0 technology and social media help to improve efficiencies within government and citizen participation? In the 21Web 2.0 initiatives are being used within the public sector, giving more currency to the term Government 2.0 (New World Encyclopedia, 2009).

Government 2.0 with the use of technology, both inside and outside government. The term “Government 2.0” leverages Web 2.0 and social networking technology. It is always associated with Web 2.0 and Social Media. In 2005, The term was first coined by is one of America’s best known authorities on government reform William D. Eggers and with co-author Stephen Goldsmith in Government 2.0: Using Technology to Improve Education, Cut Red Tape, Reduce Gridlock, and Enhance Democracy. According to New World Encyclopedia (2009), it is an attempt to integrate the social networking and interactive advantages of Web 2.0 approaches into the practice of government. It can provide more effective processes for service delivery for individuals and businesses. Integration of tools like wikis, development of government specific social networking sites, use of blogs, multimedia sharing, podcasts, RSS feeds and data mashups are all helping governments provide information to citizens in a manner that is most useful to them.

A simpler definition is that “Government 2.0 either describes a vision of a new form of governance , engaging with constituents is understood as a critical element of political legitimacy”. (A. Schellong and P. Girrger, 2010) In other words, Government 2.0 can have two meanings. It is the use of Information Technology (IT) to socialize and commoditize government services, processes and data (A. Maio, 2009). It is also the use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies (especially the collaborative technologies) to interact with citizens more directly and provide better government services at a city, state, national and international level.

A more intriguing definition, the term “Government 2.0″ was introduced by respected developers’ handbook publisher Tim O’Reilly, is “Government As a Platform” at both Gov 2.0 Expo and Gov 2.0 Summit Conferences in 2009 and Washington DC.

A video explains “What Government 2.0 is” by Tim O’Reilly

Video 1.0 – What Government 2.0 is

Characteristics of Government 2.0

  • It is citizen-driven.
  • It is employee-centric.
  • It keeps evolving.
  • It is transformational.
  • It requires a blend of planning and nurturing.
  • It needs Pattern-Based Strategy capabilities.
  • It calls for a new management style.

From Gartner – Government 2.0: A Gartner Definition by Andrea Di Maio.

Four Types of Interaction of Government 2.0

  • Government to citizen – providing services and information to citizens.
  • Citizen to government – citizens report on probelms that need government assistance.
  • Citizen to citizen – not every problem needs to be solved by government.
  • Government to government – we need better cooperation within government agencies.

From My Heart’s In Accra – Tim O’Reilly on Government 2.0 by Ethan Zuckerman.

Benefits of Government 2.0

  • To reduce cost of engagement through more productive tools
  • To provide a more efficient and effective communication way with cizitens
  • To help government better take advantage of social networking technologies
  • To use collaborative tool for easier knowledge sharing
  • To enhance information discovery through transparency and data mashups
  • To improve satisfaction between citizen and employee
  • To simplify knowledge creation and retention though usable Web 2.0/Enterprise 2.0 applications

Risks of Government 2.0

  • Privacy
  • Security
  • Bureaucracy
  • Regulation
  • Data Silos

From Government Blogs – Building On The Government 2.0 Platform by John Foley.

In conclusion, Government 2.0 with technology is enabled government to provide better government services and processes through social networking tools like Facebook and Twitter. The Government 2.0 platform is serving as an online communication platform for government to communicate and engage more efficient and effectively with citizens.


Web 2.0. 2009. New World Encyclopedia.

A. Schellong and P. Girrger. 2010. GOVERNMENT 2.0 IN BETA PHASE : An Analysis of eParticipation and Web 2.0 Applications of Germany’s 50 largest Cities and 16 Federal States.

A. Maio. 2009. Government 2.0: A Gartner Definition.


Harnessing Collective Intelligence

In 2005, the term “Harnessing Collective Intelligence” (HCI) was coined by Tim O’Reilly to help understand how to harness the collective intelligence to make web 2.0 applications even better. It is one of six basic principles in Web 2.0 which is a second-generation web-based technology and service.

Web 2.0 is designed in a way, so as to help collaboration and sharing between users.  It is a communication medium platform that is user-centered, decentralized and collaborative. It sees users as co-producers, co-creators and co-developers. In Order to make HCI happen, the software/spplication developers need to develop the software which can create an architecture of participation to involve users to participate in both implicitly and explicitly. For example, building an online encyclopedia (Wikipedia) which provides a platform for harnessing people to perform specific tasks like capturing and sharing contents.

Web 2.0 is all about HCI which is the heart of Web 2.0. According to Dion Hinchcliffe, there are 5 Ways to Harness Collective Intelligence, (1) Be The Hub of a Hard to Recreate Data Source, (2) Seek Collective Intelligence Out, (3) Trigger Large-Scale Network Effects, (4) Provide a Folksonomy and (5) Create a Reverse Intelligence Filter. Wikis, blogs and social networking applications such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are the examples of a platform with Collective Intelligence (CI) that encourage user-generated content.

Wikipedia is well known and the most widely used wiki software/website. It is also an excellent example of CI with explicit user participation (voluntary contribution system).  It is a new form of open publishung online that can be edited by anyone with access to the posts. It is an online peer to peer collaborative multilingual and the biggest multilingual free-content encyclopedia on the Internet, with 15 million articles in over 240 languages [Wikipedia, 2010]. The extensive use of hyperlinks and simple user contributions usage model (an input field and an edit/save button) make it so popular. It enables content to be generated and up-linked by all who choose to participate. As well,  it encourages users to become the content producers to edit or correct other users’ existing posts.

Quick and Easily Done Wiki (QEDWiki) is smiliar to Wikipedia that has “Harnessing Collective Intelligence” attribute. It is an application wiki which is a browser-based assembly canvas used to create simple mashups. This application was built by IBM. The following is an introduction video clip which shows how QEDWiki works.

In conclusion, HCI is changing the relations between producers and consumers of media. It helps users to paricipate with applications and create more valuable and meaningful content.  Without users’ interaction, all of Web 2.0 application  may not have existed or could be worthless. 


Hinchcliffe, D. 2006. 5 Ways to Harness Collective Intelligence.
Retrieved March 7, 2010 from : http://web2.socialcomputingjournal.com/five_great_ways_to_harness_collective_intelligence.htm

Ogbuji, U. 2007. Real Web 2.0: Wikipedia, champion of user-generated content.
Retrieved March 7, 2010 from : http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-realweb4/

Wikipedia. 2010. Wikipedia.
Retrieved March 7, 2010 from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia

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