Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0

Posts tagged ‘Web 2.0’

What is Government 2.0?

What does the term Government 2.0 mean? Do the public really know to it and need to understand it? How can Web 2.0 technology and social media help to improve efficiencies within government and citizen participation? In the 21Web 2.0 initiatives are being used within the public sector, giving more currency to the term Government 2.0 (New World Encyclopedia, 2009).

Government 2.0 with the use of technology, both inside and outside government. The term “Government 2.0” leverages Web 2.0 and social networking technology. It is always associated with Web 2.0 and Social Media. In 2005, The term was first coined by is one of America’s best known authorities on government reform William D. Eggers and with co-author Stephen Goldsmith in Government 2.0: Using Technology to Improve Education, Cut Red Tape, Reduce Gridlock, and Enhance Democracy. According to New World Encyclopedia (2009), it is an attempt to integrate the social networking and interactive advantages of Web 2.0 approaches into the practice of government. It can provide more effective processes for service delivery for individuals and businesses. Integration of tools like wikis, development of government specific social networking sites, use of blogs, multimedia sharing, podcasts, RSS feeds and data mashups are all helping governments provide information to citizens in a manner that is most useful to them.

A simpler definition is that “Government 2.0 either describes a vision of a new form of governance , engaging with constituents is understood as a critical element of political legitimacy”. (A. Schellong and P. Girrger, 2010) In other words, Government 2.0 can have two meanings. It is the use of Information Technology (IT) to socialize and commoditize government services, processes and data (A. Maio, 2009). It is also the use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies (especially the collaborative technologies) to interact with citizens more directly and provide better government services at a city, state, national and international level.

A more intriguing definition, the term “Government 2.0″ was introduced by respected developers’ handbook publisher Tim O’Reilly, is “Government As a Platform” at both Gov 2.0 Expo and Gov 2.0 Summit Conferences in 2009 and Washington DC.

A video explains “What Government 2.0 is” by Tim O’Reilly

Video 1.0 – What Government 2.0 is

Characteristics of Government 2.0

  • It is citizen-driven.
  • It is employee-centric.
  • It keeps evolving.
  • It is transformational.
  • It requires a blend of planning and nurturing.
  • It needs Pattern-Based Strategy capabilities.
  • It calls for a new management style.

From Gartner – Government 2.0: A Gartner Definition by Andrea Di Maio.

Four Types of Interaction of Government 2.0

  • Government to citizen – providing services and information to citizens.
  • Citizen to government – citizens report on probelms that need government assistance.
  • Citizen to citizen – not every problem needs to be solved by government.
  • Government to government – we need better cooperation within government agencies.

From My Heart’s In Accra – Tim O’Reilly on Government 2.0 by Ethan Zuckerman.

Benefits of Government 2.0

  • To reduce cost of engagement through more productive tools
  • To provide a more efficient and effective communication way with cizitens
  • To help government better take advantage of social networking technologies
  • To use collaborative tool for easier knowledge sharing
  • To enhance information discovery through transparency and data mashups
  • To improve satisfaction between citizen and employee
  • To simplify knowledge creation and retention though usable Web 2.0/Enterprise 2.0 applications

Risks of Government 2.0

  • Privacy
  • Security
  • Bureaucracy
  • Regulation
  • Data Silos

From Government Blogs – Building On The Government 2.0 Platform by John Foley.

In conclusion, Government 2.0 with technology is enabled government to provide better government services and processes through social networking tools like Facebook and Twitter. The Government 2.0 platform is serving as an online communication platform for government to communicate and engage more efficient and effectively with citizens.


Web 2.0. 2009. New World Encyclopedia.

A. Schellong and P. Girrger. 2010. GOVERNMENT 2.0 IN BETA PHASE : An Analysis of eParticipation and Web 2.0 Applications of Germany’s 50 largest Cities and 16 Federal States.

A. Maio. 2009. Government 2.0: A Gartner Definition.


Legal Risks of Social Media in Organization

Technology is in a state of constant change. The world of communication has changed, with the rise of social media which changed the way individuals and companies communicate. In 2010, social media has spread further in the workplace, taking collaboration to a new level. The term “Social Media” was first coined in 2007 by Danah M. Boyd and Nicole B. Ellison‘s paper, Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship, published in December 2006. Social Media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content (UGC) (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p.61). In other words, social media is the media of online communication and interaction and content is generated and exchanged by online users.

A video clip explains “what social media is”

Characteristics of Social Media

Social media is a new way of connecting and interacting with people in various media forms, including videos, images and texts. It allows everyone to be a content co-producer and to publish or access information anywhere around the world. There are five main characteristics of Social Media.

Characteristics of Social Media

  1. Participation – to encourage contributions and feedback on the online platforms such as social networks, wikis and blogs.
  2. Openness – to provide free services and encourage people to provide comments and share information.
  3. Conversation – an interactive communication or a two-way conversation.
  4. Community – to allow people to form communities to share their common interests.
  5. Connectedness –  to use hypertext links to connect resources and people together.

Types of Social Media

In 2010, Kaplan and Haenlein defined six different social media types in their Business Horizons article called Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media.

Social Media

  1. Collaborative Projects – to allow people to be the content co-producer, to add content or edit the information. The best collaborative project is Wikipedia
  2. Blogs – to able people to leave comments and share information through blogging services like WordPress, Blogger and TypePad.
  3. Microblogs – to allow people to send and receive short instant messages (less than 140 characters) via mobile phones. Twitter is one of examples that is using micro-blogging as a service platform. 
  4. Content Communities – to share particular kinds of content. The most popular content communities are Flickr (images/photos), del.icio.us (bookmarked links) and YouTube (videos).
  5. Social Networks – to allow people to build their online personal profile and connect with their friends to form their own social network. As well, to share content with others and to allow them to communicate more interactively. The typical examples of social networks are Facebook and MySpace.
  6. Virtual Game Worlds – are virtual game communities and accessible on the Internet. They are enable their users to interact with one another through avatars. The best-known Virtual Game Worlds is Second Life (SL).

Internet Usage Statistics

The Internet has become the fastest growing medium in the world. According to website, Internet World Stats, there is an increase of 444.8% of Internet users worldwide over the last ten years. In 2000, there were only 361 Million (360,985,492 to be exact) Internet users worldwide, but the latest figure shows that the Internet users are just reaching under 2 Billion (1,966,514,816 to be exact on June 31, 2010).

Social Media Statistics

In 2010, social media is the number one activity on the Web and also is becoming a major platform for online interactive communication. There are some facts and figures on the most popular social media websites.

  • Wikipedia – over 16 million articles and over 3.3 million in English (Wikipedia, 2010).
  • Blogs – more than 110 million blogs being tracked by Technorati, a specialist blog search engine, up from 63 million at the beginning of the year (Mayfield, 2008).
  • Twitter – 75 million Twitters users (Mark Evans, 2010).
  • YouTube – 100 Million visitors per month and 5 Billion video streams every month (Clean Cut Media, 2009).
  • Facebook – over 500 million active users and 50% of its active users log on to Facebook in any given day. As well, each user spends over 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook (Facebook, 2010).

Social Media Risks in Organization

According to the research, nearly 50% of end-users ignore company policy on social media access and 27 % said they knowingly alter settings on their corporate devices to access restricted applications (Visage Mobile, 2010). That means, a company internal system is not secure and any private company information can be easily published by workers (staff) through many third-party applications (such as Facebook and Twitter) by a wall post or a status update.

There is a list of various legal risks of social media for companies.

  • Loss of confidential information
  • Trademark infringement and loss of brand reputation (reputation risk)
  • Copyright infringement
  • Discrimination
  • Misleading and deceptive conduct
  • Passing off
  • Organisational reputation risk
  • Breach of continuous disclosure obligations for public companies
  • Defamation
  • Privacy
  • Vicarious liability
  • Negligent misstatement
  • Occupation and industry specific risks as they are embodied in organisational specific legislation and practice.

For more information on Social Media Law go to the Rostron Carlyle’s website.

How to avoid Social Legal Risks in Organization

Today, there are a lot of companies which have decided to adopte the concept of Enterprise 2.0 and incorporate social media technologies and techniques in their business. However, there are some social legal concerns that should be considered more carefully. A Social Media Policy (SMP) should also be considered. Each company should develop its own SMP. Currently, more than 80% of companies have implemented social media to provide better interactive, collaborative communication for their customers, employees and business partners in America. But only 33% of large companies (like IBM and Intel) have a SMP.

In conclusion, individuals and companies all need to understand any social legal risks within the social media, especially in relation to personal information.


Kaplan, Andreas M. and Haenlein Michael. 2010. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.

Visage Mobile. 2010. Mobility Management News and Blogs. Learn what we’re thinking about mobility management and where we think it’s going.

Wikipedia. 2010. Wikipedia.

J. Moriber. 2010. Social Media: Risk or Reward?.

Statistics Facebook. 2010. Facebook.

A. Mayfield. 2010. 75M Twitter Users But Growth Slowing.

Clean Cut Media. 2009. Youtube Statistics – The Ultimate Time Suck.

Case Study on Enterprise 2.0

Today, with the technology development, the Web has changed the economics of software development and the Internet has also changed the way of the software developers with regard to how they look at the traditional software development and delivery process. With the evolution of the Web, Enterprise social software and Web technology have evolved into the next new Internet era, coined as Enterprise 2.0. The phrase “Enterprise  2.0″ was first coined by Harvard Business School Associate Professor Andrew McAfee in the spring 2006. Enterprise 2.0 is about a technical and cultural shift within the organization towards far greater degrees of user-driven content and content sharing (MIKE 2.0, 2010). In other words, Enterprise 2.0 is about collaboration and connectivity.

Key Benefits of Implementing Enterprise 2.0

Ross Dawson has defined four key benefits of implementing Enterprise 2.0 to organizations in his latest book called ” Implementing Enterprise 2.0″.

  • Productivity and Efficiency
  • Staff Engagement
  • Knowledge
  • Reputation

For full details on the report and all the sample chapters go to the Implementing Enterprise 2.0 website.

Why does an organization need to implement Enterprise 2.0?

Over the past decade, most organizations are used some common communication tools such as emails, websites and documents (printed static contents) to communicate and collaborate with their customers and employees. Today, they are also using Web 2.0 applications (examples wikis and blogs) and widgets (examples mashups) to help them to build an interactive collaborative environment, to increase productivity, to share knowledge and to enhance customer experience. 

This week, i am going to look  into an organization that has incorporated Enterprise 2.0 principles and social computing concepts associated with an innovative use of technology in its organization. One of the best examples for an organization is Vistaprint (see Figure 1.0).

Vistaprint Logo Figure 1.0 – Vistaprint

Who is Vistaprint?

Vistaprint is a large online supplier of printed and promotional materials. In North America, it is one of the fastest growing printing companies. It has served annually more than 9 million customers worldwide. It currently employs approximately 2,200 people, operates 22 localized websites globally and ships to more than 120 countries around the world  (Vistaprint 2010). It offers a broad range of services to small businesses and consumers from high-quality printed marketing materials to marketing services. It also provides online services and solutions such as email marketing, websites and postcard marketing.

How does Vistaprint implement Enterprise 2.0?

Idea sharing has always been very important at Vistaprint (Morgan, 2010). Therefore, Vistaprint adopted the concept of the Enterprise 2.0 and launched an internal enterprise wiki (powered by MediaWiki – see figure 2.0) and an ideation platform (powered by Intuit).

This video clip shows what MediaWiki is, what it does and what it can do for you.

Figure 2.0 – MediaWiki

  • Internal Enterprise Wiki – In mid 2006, Vistaprint decided to implement an internal enterprise wiki called “VistaWiki” for knowledge sharing (see Figure 3.0). Daniel Barrett has implemented this KM system (knowledge management system) into the social computing world for Vistaprint. The benefits of using VistaWiki within the organization are to increase efficiency and productivity and to give  knowledge to workers who can use collaborative software to share information.


Figure 3.0 – VistaWiki

  • Ideation Platform – In March 2009, Vistaprint used the Intuit Brainstorm platform which was to speed up the product development process by unleashing creativity and empower employees with useful tools to move their ideas forward. (Zenkin, 2010) The platform was called “The Funnel” and is used to share ideas with staff across the organization, including CEO (Chief Executive Officer). Therefore, the funnel is a collaborative medium which is used to generate new ideas to deploy for customers (Morgan, 2010).

The benefits of implementing Enterprise 2.0 in Vistaprint

There are some key benefits that Vistaprint decided to implement an Enterprise 2.0 strategy into its organization.

  • Content Information Access – Ideation Platform helps to create better internal communication with easier access to content. The system users can also access from anywhere in the world.
  • Knowledge Sharing – VistaWiki users have created over 20,000 articles altogether. 
  • Instant Message Notification – VistaWiki users can see live data, such as sales figures, RSS 2.0 feeds directly from other enterprise systems (Portals and KM, 2009).
  • Simplicity and Cost Effective – VistaPrint employees found using the wiki format valuable for many reasons including: ease of use (based on open-source code), ability to track “live” documents and the simplicity of the design layout (Portals and KM, 2009).


Enterprise 2.0 Solution Offering. MIKE 2.0. 2010.

Another Enterprise 2.0 Knowledge Sharing Success Story – VistaWiki. Portals and KM. 2009.

About Vistaprint. Vistaprint. 2010.

D. Zenkin. 2010. Intranet vs Enterprise 2.0 vs Social Software: an obvious case of terminological controversy.

J. Lennon. 2009. Implementing Enterprise 2.0.

J. Morgan. 2010. Implementing Enterprise 2.0 at Vistaprint Part One : Business Drivers.

Perpetual Beta

Today, with the technology development, the Web has changed the economics of software development and the Internet has also changed the way of the software developers on how they look at the traditional software development and delivery process.  In 2005, the term “Web 2.0” was proposed by respected developers’ handbook publisher Tim O’Reilly and “perpetual beta” is one of the key design principles of Web 2.0.

Tim O’Reilly defines the concept of perpetual beta by stating that “there is never a definitive version and software remains under development and improvement as long as it exists. Following this concept, the software is commercialised before it is ‘feature complete’ or free of programming bugs, ‘developed in the open, with new features slipstreamed in on a monthly, weekly, or even daily basis’” (Efthymios C  and Stefan J, 2007 ). In other words, in Web 2.0 era, software has become a service, which is always refound and improved continuously based upon customer feedback. Users become co-developers or real-time testers and make operations (24/7 ongoing daily care and feeding of online services) a core competency. This is a new way of thinking about software development and a new perspective on the software business.


Home page for Remember the MilkFigure 1.0 : Remember the Milk

Remember the Milk (RTM) was found by Emily Boyd and Omar Kilani and developed by an Australian/International team. The RTM is an application service provider for web-based task- and time-management (Wikipedia, 2010). In another words, RTM is a  free online Web-based Cross-platform application (see Figure 1.0) which can help users to simplify and organize all their daily tasks in one place. Its beta version – Remember the Milk beta – was publicly launched in October 2005 (see Figure 2.0) and stayed in beta for 4 years until October 2009 (see Figure 3.o).

Beta Logo for Remember the Milk 

Figure 2.0 : Beta Logo for Remember the MilkCurrent Logo for Remember the MilkFigure 3.0 : Current Logo for Remember the Milk

RTM allows users to create multiple tasks lists, manage their tasks, prioritize their tasks, and share their tasks with others  from any computer as well as offline with Gears. It also integrates with various other products, web services and third parties such as Netvibes, iGoogleGoogle MapsTwitter, Jott and more. RTM’s users can also create categorized task lists, send out reminders via email, SMS, instant messenger (AIM, Gadu-Gadu, Google Talk, ICQ, Jabber, MSN, Skype and Yahoo! are all supported)  and Twitter and even access it by mobile device and phone (iPhone/iPod touch, Android phone, BlackBarry and Windows Mobile).

In 2005, O’Reilly described the concept of perpetual beta as part of a customized Internet environment with these applications as distinguishing characteristics (Wikipedia, 2010):

  • Release early and release often and continuously improved –
    Microsoft was one the first companies to request users for a beta program (Diana, 2009). Afterward, many development organizations like Google adoped the same concept “the use of the “beta” tag on many “web 2.0″ products” to release their products/services such as GMail early to the market. RTM used the same concept to lanuch its application with the “beta” tag which means that Remember The Milk is a work-in-progress. RTM development team is still working to add new features (lanuching Pro Tester Program), developing other projects (Twitter and Jott integtation), improving services (Data center maintenance).
  • User as a co-developers and real time testers –
    Tim O’Reilly stated that “Real-world user behavior provides a much more accurate model for assessing new product features than marketing requirements documents, prototypes, or any other form of non-production feedback (Musser, 2006) .” In March 2008, the RTM development team decided to launch the Pro Tester Program (or PTP for short) to do testing on every browser and operating system combination and even every mobile device/portable device. PTP members will be given pre-release versions of new RTM features to  and will be invited to provide feedback and help us by reporting any problems encountered with said new features (Remember the Milk, 2010). In February 2010, RTM development team has also did a Survey for the Mobile devices (see Figure 4.0) to help them to prioritize mobile development for 2010. Over 3,300 lovely Remember The Milk users were kind enough to provide their input (Remember the Milk, 2010). The RTM development team would also like users to send a suggestion/feedback to them directly, posted on the  forums. Therefore, RTM could produce the service/feature which could always meet current customers’ needs and preferences.

Survey - Mobile Devices

Figure 4.0 : Survey – one of Graph Results – Mobile Devices

  • Software above the level of a single device –
    In the Web 2.0 world, Internet/Web 2.0 applications are not limited to a single device or a platform. They need to be worked everywhere. RTM is a Web 2.0 multi-platform application which can be run and can support different platforms including Windows, Mac, and Linux. As well it can be accessed by mobile devices and phones.
  • Make operations a core competency –
    The RTM development team loves to use low-cost/open source software to develop applications and to leverage large support communities and resources. They try to open source as much as possible. They also actively integrate users’ feedback into the the core product. For example, in February 2010 mobile survey, users chose “Improve the existing iPhone app” as your #1 mobile request. The RTM development team made improvements and released the latest version of the Remember The Milk app.

 Beta Logo for Remember the Milk

Figure 5.0 : Remove “Beta” Logo for Remember the Milk

Today, for Web 2.0 applications, the “beta” label is an iconic symbol which can be realized instantly and presented to the public as a beta-version. For RTM, “beta” label means that Remember the Milk is a work-in-progress (Remember the Milk, 2010). The RTM development team is still working to add features, and there might be a bug or two here and there. However, in October 2009, they decided to finally leave beta (see figure 5.0); because web applications (web apps) did not need to be in beta anymore to continue to evolve. (Remember the Milk, 2010)

In conclusion, Remember the Milk demonstrates the Web 2.0 principle of ‘Perpetual Beta’ which enables the softwares/applications continually to improve and continuous release processes allow users to instantaneously benefit (Toby Segaran, Colin Evans and Jamie Taylor, 2009). The perpetual beta has made operations as a core competency. It has also become a process for engaging customers or prospective customers.


Efthymios, C  and Stefan, J. 2007. Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues.

Diana, R. 2009. Alpha: When Beta Is Not Good Enough.

Remember the Milk. 2010. Wikipedia.

Segaran, T, Evans, C and Taylor, J. 2009. Programming the Semantic Web – Perpetual Beta. p 17.

Musser, J. 2006. Web 2.0: Principles and Best Practices.

Software above the Level of a single device

In the earier stage of the Web 1.0  development (1990), the webpage was the only interaction between browsers and servers and the web content information was downloaded from the server to the local desktop Personal Computer (PC). Today, Web 2.0 has arrived and it changes the way of traditional Web communication from uni-directional to bi-directional and also allows many websites to interact with their users by providing valuable services such as the case of applications like Microsoft and Google.

“Software above the level of a single device” is one of the principles of the Web 2.0. At the EclipseCon 2005 conference, Tim O’Reilly stated that “The PC is no longer the only access device for Internet applications, and applications that are limited to a single device are less valuable than those that are connected”. Therefore, Internet/Web 2.0 applications are not limited to a single device or  a platform. At the same time, they are able to be accessed by handheld devices, PCs and the Internet. As well, they need to be worked everywhere (Figure 1.0 – Internet/Web 2.0 application work everywhere).

Internet/Web Applications Work Everywhere

Figure 1.0 – Internet/Web 2.0 Application work everywhere

New Web 2.0 applications such as Microsoft Live Mesh and Google Documents (Google Docs)  are not limited to the PC platform. This week I am going to look  into a Web 2.0 application that is characterized by “Software (that operates) above the level of a single device”.

What is Microsoft Live Mesh?

Live Mesh is a ’software-plus-services’ platform and experience from Microsoft that enables PCs and other devices to ‘come alive’ by making them aware of each other through the Internet, enabling individuals and organizations to manage, access, and share their files and applications seamlessly on the Web and across their world of devices (Mary Jo Foley, 2008). In other words, Live Mesh is a “software-plus-services” platform plus a new kind of Internet Oriented Operating System (utility computing) which can do folder synchronization, file share, cross-platform access and complete with 5 GB of free storage and unlimited peer-to-peer data on the web. It also helps to synchronize files across PCs and devices. It is currently a beta application.

What Does Live Mesh include :

  • A platform that defines and models a user’s digital relationships between devices, data, applications, and people—made available to developers through an open data model and protocols.
  • A cloud service providing an implementation of the platform hosted in Microsoft data centers.
  • Software, a client implementation of the platform that enables local applications to run offline and interact seamlessly with the cloud.
  • A platform experience that exposes the key benefits of the platform for bringing together a user’s devices, files and applications, and social graphs, with news feeds across all of these.

From Microsoft First Look at Live Mesh, 2008

What Features do Live Mesh have :

  • Devices page – Mesh Management
  • Live Desktop – Users’ Windows PC on the web, complete with 5 GB of free storage space.
  • Mesh bar – helps users manage their files and members are invited to share the files.
  • Notifier – lets people see news about what’s happening in your mesh.
  • News – continuous feed detailing activities in users’ mesh.
  • Live Mesh Remote Desktop – Transports users to another computer in your mesh.
  • Mac – Adds a Mac to users’ mesh. Sync and share folders between their PC and their Mac.
  • Mobile – Takes users’ mesh with others wherever they go.

From mesh.com, 2009

The following behind the scenes video clip shows what is Microsoft Live Mesh.

Live Mesh is part of Live Services, one of the building blocks of Microsoft’s Azure Services Platform – a “cloud” platform hosted at Microsoft data centers (AbsoluteAstronomy.com, 2010). According David Chappell (2008), “Azure Services Platform can be used by applications running in the cloud and by applications running on a variety of local systems such as Windows, mobile devices and others.” Therefore, Live Mesh is a cloud computing platform which connects all the devices (mobile, computer, laptop) together in the cloud (Figure 2.0 – Mesh Ring) and stores data on servers in Microsoft data centers, as well as, remote access computers.

Mesh Ring

Figure 2.0 – Mesh Ring

 The following video clip shows the Microsoft data center and cloud computing.

Live Mesh is also a client software run-time Mesh Operating Environment (MOE). MOE is a service composition runtime that provides a unified view of all Live Mesh services and a simple way for applications to interact with Live Mesh (Microsoft Blog, 2008). Currently, Live Mesh is available for Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Mac OS X (Some Live Mesh features not yet available for the Mac), as well as Mobile (Windows Mobile 6.1 or later). In the future, it will become a platform that allows developers’ use to connect both online and offline programs.

Microsoft has also integrated a feed (one of social networking elements) or collection of feeds (member feeds, news feeds, custom feeds) into Live Mesh to keep track of activities in the mesh (Figure 3.0 – Live Mesh News). It allows Live Mesh users/members to invite other users to share a file or folder and access on devices (Windows PC, Mac OS, mobile phone, xBox and more) in their Live Mesh network.

Live Mesh News

Figure 3.0 – Live Mesh News

There are some other similiar Web services that offer remote desktop or file-sharing capabilities or online backup storage. They are allowing users to keep in sync across multiple platforms such as Apple MobileMe, Box.net, Dropbox and Mozy. However, some of applications need fees, for examples Apple’s MobileMe which costs $119 AUD person/year with 20GB web-storage and Box.net is $119.4 USD person/year with 1GB web-storage.

In conclusion, with the technology development today, the new Web technology allows all applications to have more ability to access the various PCs that connect to the Web. As well, the marriage of Web applications and mobile (portable) devices gives the users applications that allow more effective bi-directional or even multi-directional communication. At the end, the future of the operating system (OS) will increasingly rely heavily on Web-based files rather than the local drive files.


D, Chappell. 2008. Introducing the Azure Services Platform. Retrieved April 15, 2010.

EclipseCon. 2005. Open Source Business Model Design Patterns. Tim O’Reilly. Retrieved April 15, 2010.

Microsoft. 2008. Microsoft First Look at Live Mesh. Retrieved April 15, 2010.

Microsoft. 2009. What’s inside Live Mesh? Retrieved April 15, 2010.

Microsoft Blog. 2008. Behind Live Mesh : What is MOE? Retrieved April 15, 2010.

M, Foley. 2008. Ten things to know about Microsoft’s Live Mesh. Retrieved April 15, 2010.

Live Mesh. 2010. Absolute Astronomy. Retrieved April 15, 2010.

Live Mesh. 2010. Wikipedia. Retrieved April 15, 2010.

Rich User Experiences

As technology has developed, so too has the web and it is expanding constantly. Currently, we are in the Web 2.0 era and “Rich User Experience” is one of the key design patterns of the Web 2.0 which is the successor of the traditional web 1.0. According to O’Reilly, “A success in the Web 2.0 world depends on a successful experience.” Therefore, a key success for the Web 2.0 application depends on a dynamic and successful user-driven experience.

Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) is part of the Web 2.0. RIAs can be defined as web applications and have been used to design experiences for people. There are two key elements in developing RIAs :

  • User Experience (UX) 
    According to Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, “UX is about technology that fulfils more than just instrumental needs in a way that acknowledges its use as a subjective, situated, complex and dynamic encounter. UX is a consequence of a user’s internal state, the characteristics of the designed system and the context within which the interaction occurs. ”  (InspireUx, 2010) In other words, designing the interface and developing the applications which are simple, interactive, universal and engaging the users to participate in creating the contents.
  • Usability – According to Nielsen, “Usability consists of five parameters: learnability, efficiency, memorability, error avoidance, and subjective satisfaction.” (Sitepoint, 2010) In other words, usability eliminates unnecessary confusion for the users.

The following video clip demostrates the web revolution – Rich Internet Applications

There are some open source platforms, components and programming languages such as Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, Sun JavaFx, Ajax, and Ruby on Rails,  Adobe Flex and others have been developed for Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) development. They allow application developers and designers to make amazing tools, design user-friendly interfaces and express their creative ability. They also enable more interactive user actions such as the drag-and-drop of user interface elements, mashups and dynamic information gathering.

Etsy is one of social ecommerce websites built by RIAs applications in Adobe Flash. It is an online market place and also a global community which allows communication between makers and buyers and reconnects makers with buyers directly for buying and selling products. It offers a new way of online shopping experiences.

The following video clip shows what Etsy is and provides a vision of it.

Etsy has also developed some unique tools and functionality to allow the users to have more interaction with web page elements. For example, colors, connections and more.

  • Colors – allows the users to click on  a color – any color. Etsy will find the items or products to match the color.
    Etsy Colors




  • Connections – allows the users to find the items by knowing who likes what and comparing that with what they like.
  • Etsy Connections


The following video clip demostrates how to shop at Etsy with their unique tools

In conclusion, with the technology development and web revolution, RIAs web application changes the world of retail commerce works and human to human relationships.


Interview – Jakob Nielsen, Ph.D. Sitepoint. 2010.
Retrieved March 24, 2010 from : http://articles.sitepoint.com/article/interview-jakob-nielsen-ph-d/4

InspireUX. UX is about technology that fulfils more than just instrumental needs. 2010.
Retrieved March 24, 2010 from : http://www.inspireux.com/2009/07/29/ux-is-about-technology-that-fulfils-more-than-just-instrumental-needs/

Innovation In Assembly

National Public Radio (NPR) is a media organization, an online radio application that produces, distributes and delivers breaking national and world news. It is also a privately supported, not-for-profit membership organization, NPR produces and distributes programming that reaches a combined audience of 26.4 million listeners weekly. With original online content and audio streaming, NPR.org offers hourly newscasts, special features and ten years of archived audio and information (NPR, 2010).

NPR is one of Media Convergence – an example that offers a new digital distribution communication platform to deliver broader public service to their world-wide listeners (international, national and community) and also engages and interacts with their audiences. According to Jenkins, media convergence is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the relationship between existing technologies, industries, markets, genres and audiences. Convergence refers to a process, but not an endpoint. With this, media convergence will come a new trend in consumption.

NPR stated that “Open, distributed access to public radio content will result in much greater usage than if we require everyone to come to our portals” (Dennis Haarsager, 2008).  Therefore, to increase distribution opportunities, NPR has announced the release of their APIs at O’Reilly’s Open Source Convention (OSCON) 2008.

The NPR Application Programming Interface (API) has enabled developers and more tech-savvy users to build complex applications (See picture below).


NPR’s API is a content API, which essentially provides a structured way for other computer applications to get NPR stories in a predictable, flexible and powerful way (NPR, 2010). For example,  podcast directory – mix your own podcast – is one of NPR’s content APIs created by NPR to allow developers to remix and reuse any podcast content created by the network. NPR Addict and NPR Backstory are mashups that are created by third party developers (tech-savvy users) Therefore, NPR opens APIs which make APIs more transparent and opens them to its users. As well as, it provides an interaction platform to allow users to innovate and be creative with its podcast content.

The following video clip shows how people use NPR Addict on their iphone:

In conclusion, NPR provides a secure platform for application developers and tech-savvy users through assembly and innovation. NPR is also open its APIs to increase the spread of its digital material. In the future, the Web probably will offer more and more open web services. As well, more and more companies will allow their APIs to be open to attract more drive traffics. In other words, allowing more people to visit NPR website.


Haarsager, D. 2008. NPR’s digital distribution strategy.
Retrieved March 19, 2010 from : http://technology360.typepad.com/technology360/2008/09/nprs-digital-di.html

Jacobson, D and Neal, H. 2008. Open Content – National Public Radio.
Retrieved March 19, 2010 from : http://www.npr.org/images/api/NPR_OSCON_open_content_for_insidenprorg.pd f

NPR. 2010. API Documentation – API Overview.
Retrieved March 19, 2010 from : http://www.npr.org/api/index.php

Jenkins, H. 2004. The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence’ International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 7 (1), 33-43.

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